What Is a Monoclonal Antibody?
The antibody produced by cloning the single cell line with similar antibodies is called a monoclonal antibody. In simpler words, it is an artificial protein that acts like human antibodies in the immune system, protecting against various infections and diseases.
Monoclonal antibodies are highly effective in clinical, environmental, and elemental research due to their specificity, affinity, and low toxicity. The process development monoclonal antibodies CDMO usage includes applications like diagnostics, therapeutics, imaging, and vitro tests.
Monoclonal antibodies can be used individually or conjugated with other small molecules like fluorescent markers or enzymes during diagnostics.
Some high-yield applications of monoclonal antibodies are as follows:
Monoclonal antibodies are routinely used in symptomatic tests like ELISA and RIA. The tests measure the concentrations of bodily hormones like insulin, TSH, hCG, and various enzymes and proteins in the blood. Monoclonal antibodies are now a part of several diagnostic kits.
- In pregnancy, the levels of human chorionic gonadotrophins can be measured by monoclonal antibody diagnostics.
- The estimation of cancer-specific molecules can also be done through monoclonal antibodies. For example, the measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen in colorectal cancer and prostate-specific antigen for prostate gland cancer in males.
2. Viral Infections:
Immunocompromised patients like those with AIDS and those who recently underwent an organ transplant are at high risk of CMV infections. CMV infection can cause
- Mental retardation
- Hearing loss
There is no vaccine available to prevent this infection. Ganciclovir, foscarnet, and pro cytosine are the medications used in CMV infection. Another method is to regulate anti-CMV hyper immunoglobulin obtained from the serum of CMV-positive patients. So, a combination of humanized antibodies with antiviral drugs is generally used for CMV. Monoclonal antibodies reduce the number of antivirals required.
Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies are used in radioimmunotherapy for the treatment of cancers. The antibodies provide radioactive isotopes in targeted cells. Proper knowledge about suitable doses and shedding target antigens is important. Otherwise, antibodies might attack the healthy cells.
Bronchial hyperactivity occurs due to a large amount of IgE released in asthma. A study was conducted; in which the patients with mild to moderate asthma were injected with two two-week injections of humanized anti-IgE antibodies. The antibody forms complexes with IgE and obstructs degranulation of mast cells which mildly reduces the symptoms of asthma. Using antibody treatment also helps reduce dependency on corticosteroids.
The hallmark of AIDS is immunosuppression. The human immunodeficiency virus binds with the CD4 cells to cause immune suppression. The idea of connecting rat Monoclonal antibodies with human CD4 cells to cause cell-mediated eradication of the virus is under consideration by the genetic engineer. This complex has a great affinity for the gp120 protein of virus-infected cells.
Sotrovimab is the specific monoclonal antibody against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. It blocks the viral attachment to human cells and hence inhibits the entry of viruses inside the cells. Hospitalized patients, especially those requiring oxygen due to coronavirus, are not authorized for monoclonal antibodies.